[39], After a long spell of hot and dry weather through mid-1666, what later became known as the Great Fire of London started on 2 September 1666 in a bakehouse on Pudding Lane. Whose word no man relies on, Sucedeulle o seu irmán, o duque de York, que pasou a ser Xacobe II de Inglaterra e Irlanda e VII de Escocia. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud. Debido ao caos que trouxo consigo a Guerra Civil Inglesa, nunca investíuselle solemnemente coas chamadas Honras do Principado de Gales (diadema, anel, espada, manto etc.).[1]. Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. Their first son was born about a year before Charles, but died within a day. As he had been required to do so many times during his reign, Charles bowed to the wishes of his opponents, committing Danby to the Tower of London, in which he was held for another five years. In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more likely to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. And never did a wise one"[35], To which Charles is reputed to have replied "that the matter was easily accounted for: For that his discourse was his own, his actions were the ministry's". The present Dukes of Buccleuch, Richmond, Grafton and St Albans descend from Charles in unbroken male line. Como consecuencia de devandita guerra, Carlos despediu ao seu conselleiro, Lord Clarendon, ao que utilizou como chiba expiatorio pola contenda. A cambio, Carlos acordaba proporcionar a Luís tropas e converterse ao Catolicismo "axiña que como o permitise o benestar dos seus dominios". After 1660, all legal documents stating a regnal year did so as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). His other mistresses included Moll Davis, Nell Gwyn, Elizabeth Killigrew, Catherine Pegge, Lucy Walter and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. Morreu o mércores 6 de febreiro de 1685, no palacio de Whitehall, aos 54 anos de idade, sendo sepultado na abadía de Westminster. A fin de evitar novos problemas económicos Carlos nomeou, para reformar a xestión do Tesouro e da recadación de impostos, a George Downing (o construtor de Downing Street ou rúa Downing, onde ten a súa residencia o Primeiro Ministro do Reino Unido). [103], 17th-century monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, Coat of arms of Charles II as king (outside Scotland), Coat of arms of Charles II used as king in Scotland, The traditional date of the Restoration marking the first assembly of King and Parliament together since the abolition of the English monarchy in 1649. [8] Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.[2]. [4] By spring 1646, his father was losing the war, and Charles left England due to fears for his safety. En 1668, Inglaterra aliouse con Suecia e coa súa anterior inimiga, Holanda, a fin de oporse a Luís XIV na Guerra de Devolución. La cuestión de quién debería ser su sucesor dio lugar a la guerra de Sir Wren construíu igualmente o Hospital Real de Chelsea, que Carlos fundou como fogar para soldados retirados en 1681, e no que se acha desde 1692 unha grande estatua de Carlos II vestido ao xeito da Roma clásica. [60] The people were seized with an anti-Catholic hysteria;[61] judges and juries across the land condemned the supposed conspirators; numerous innocent individuals were executed. [78] He was buried in Westminster Abbey "without any manner of pomp"[77] on 14 February.[79]. [36], In 1665, Charles was faced with a great health crisis: the Great Plague of London. [3] At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. A Cromwell sucedeulle o seu fillo, Richard Cromwell, como Lord Protector, pero se trataba dun home sen dotes para o mando nin desexo de exercelo e abdicou en 1659. A oposición de Carlos á Lei de Exclusión irritou a algúns protestantes, que organizaron o chamado "Complot de Rye House" co propósito de asasinar ao rei e ao duque de York ao seu regreso a Londres das carreiras de cabalos en Newmarket. [26] In the end nine of the regicides were executed:[27] they were hanged, drawn and quartered; others were given life imprisonment or simply excluded from office for life. Seu pai Carlos I foi executado no Palácio de Whitehall em 31 de janeiro de 1649, no auge da Guerra Civil Inglesa. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Cando soubo que se estaba morrendo, un sacerdote, o Pai John Huddleston, foi enviado con gran discreción ás súas habitacións. [47] Clarendon fled to France when impeached for high treason (which carried the penalty of death). En 1648, durante a Segunda Guerra Civil Inglesa, trasladouse a A Haia, xunto á súa irmá María Estuardo, princesa de Orange e ao seu marido, o príncipe de Orange, coa idea de poder apoiar ao seu pai. Sitio Web oficial da monarquía británica. He was King of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and King of England, Scotland and Ireland from the 1660 Restoration of the monarchy until his death in 1685. [40] Charles and his brother James joined and directed the fire-fighting effort. James was eventually dethroned in 1688, in the course of the Glorious Revolution. There would be liberty of conscience and Anglican church policy would not be harsh. O príncipe acompañou ao seu pai durante a batalla de Edgehill e, con só quince anos, participou nas batallas de 1645. Fíxose soado polos seus numerosos fillos ilexítimos, dos que recoñeceu a catorce. After Charles I's execution at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War, the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649. [51], Meanwhile, by a series of five charters, Charles granted the East India Company the rights to autonomous government of its territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops, to form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over its possessions in the Indies. A fin de salvar a Lord Danby do xuízo parlamentario na Cámara dos Lores, Carlos decidiu disolver o Parlamento en xaneiro de 1679.