This first attempt was unsuccessful, though, as Pasti was arrested in Crete by Venetian authorities accusing him of being an Ottoman spy. [citation needed]. Furthermore, he reportedly had two tutors, one trained in Greek and another in Latin, reading to him Classical histories including those of Laertius, Livy, and Herodotus in the days leading up to the fall of Constantinople. This assertion was eventually abandoned by his successors. What a wonderful leader will her leader be, and what a wonderful army will that army be! However, they ceded Shkodra, which had been under Ottoman siege for many months, as well as other territories on the Dalmatian coastline, and they relinquished control of the Greek islands of Negroponte (Euboea) and Lemnos. When Serbia refused these demands, the Ottoman army set out from Edirne towards Serbia in 1454. Mehmed later made Bayezid Pasha his grand vizier (1413–1421). She was sister of Ali Bey, and mother of his youngest son Cem. The last holdout was Salmeniko, in the Morea's northwest. ('The Great Eagle is dead! The royal city of Bobovac soon fell, leaving Stephen Tomašević to retreat to Jajce and later to Ključ. The conquest of Constantinople bestowed immense glory and prestige on the country. He delegated significant powers and functions of government to his viziers as part of his new policy of imperial seclusions. After the conquest of Constantinople, Genoese communications were disrupted, and when the Crimean Tatars asked for help from the Ottomans, they responded with an invasion of the Genoese towns, led by Gedik Ahmed Pasha in 1475, bringing Kaffa and the other trading towns under their control. A very powerful social and religious movement arose in the empire and became disruptive. Furthermore, as a result of the Battle of Ankara and other civil wars, the population of the empire had become unstable and traumatized. Although he tried to continue his struggle, he learned that his family members had been transferred to İstanbul by Gedik Ahmet Pasha, so he finally gave up. English: Mehmed II el-Fatih ("the Conqueror", 1432-1481) was sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1444-1446 and 1451-1481). [89] Of note in this large collection was Mehmed's Greek scriptorium, which included copies of Arrians’ Anabasis of Alexander the Great and Homer's Iliad. Mehmed invited Muslim scientists and astronomers such as Ali Qushji and artists to his court in Constantinople, started a University, built mosques (for example, the Fatih Mosque), waterways, and Istanbul's Topkapı Palace and the Tiled Kiosk. [43], The new alliance launched a two-pronged offensive against the Ottomans: a Venetian army, under the Captain General of the Sea Alvise Loredan, landed in the Morea, while Matthias Corvinus invaded Bosnia. Mehmed the Conqueror's response came in the summer of 1461. He is most known for the conquest of Constantinople. [45], In early August, the Venetians retook Argos and refortified the Isthmus of Corinth, restoring the Hexamilion wall and equipping it with many cannons. He failed to take the Acropolis and was forced to retreat to Patras, the capital of Peloponnese and the seat of the Ottoman bey, which was being besieged by a joint force of Venetians and Greeks. [84] He collected in his palace a library which included works in Greek, Persian and Latin. [4] The claim was only recognized by the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Venice destroyed his fleet off Gallipoli in 1416, as the Ottomans lost a naval war. Mehmed II was born on 30 March 1432, in Edirne, then the capital city of the Ottoman state. [72] After the capture of the Genoese towns, the Ottoman Sultan held Meñli I Giray captive,[73] later releasing him in return for accepting Ottoman suzerainty over the Crimean Khans and allowing them to rule as tributary princes of the Ottoman Empire. [44] At the same time, Pius II began assembling an army at Ancona, hoping to lead it in person. [76] From all over the Islamic empire, prisoners of war and deported people were sent to the city; these people were called "Sürgün" in Turkish (Greek: σουργούνιδες sourgounides; "immigrants"). [104] Many other scholars such as Halil İnalcık contest these claims as they were exclusively made by Mehmed's Christian enemies who viewed homosexuality as sinful. He was just beginning new campaigns to capture Rhodes and southern Italy, however according to some historians his next voyage was planned to overthrow the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and to capture Egypt and claim the caliphate. Mehmed replied: Mother, in my hand is the sword of Islam, without this hardship I should not deserve the name of ghazi, and today and tomorrow I should have to cover my face in shame before Allah.[35]. Ottomans and Hungarians fought during the years till 1456. "[71][better source needed] The Venetians and Shkodrans resisted the assaults and continued to hold the fortress until Venice ceded Shkodra to the Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of Constantinople as a condition of ending the war. İbrahim escaped to a small city in western territories where he died in 1464. [100][101] With his second wife, Gülşah Hatun, Mehmed had a son named Mustafa born in 1449. [90], Mehmed's affinity towards the Renaissance arts, and his strong initiative in its creation and collection, did not have a large base of support within his own court. After Skanderbeg died, Mehmed II personally led the siege of Shkodra in 1478–79, of which early Ottoman chronicler Aşıkpaşazade (1400–81) wrote, "All the conquests of Sultan Mehmed were fulfilled with the seizure of Shkodra.