[24] Between April and June 2015, New Horizons began returning images of Pluto that exceeded the quality that the Hubble Space Telescope could produce. According to New Horizons principal investigator Alan Stern, “If we send an orbiter, we can map 100 percent of the planet, even terrains that are in total shadow." It appears that they need help from regional tectonics that pulls the crust apart—the same thing that favors volcanoes at the surface. Es el más alejado del Sistema Solar. Plutón es una bola helada de hielo y roca. Interest in a mission to the Kuiper belt arose such that NASA instructed the JPL to re-purpose the mission as not only a Pluto flyby, but also a Kuiper belt object (KBO) flyby. That stamp had been in so many presentations by that point, I knew it would please people to have it go along. [30] Stern and David Grinspoon have also suggested that an orbiter mission could search for evidence of the subsurface ocean hinted at in New Horizons data.[31]. Space Exploration Issue - 29c Pluto single - Scott Catalogue USA: 2577. New Horizons had its closest approach to Pluto on 14 July 2015—after a 3,462-day journey across the Solar System. Photographs of Pluto taken on 14 July 2015 taken 15 minutes after New Horizon's closest approach, from a distance of 18,000 kilometers and sent to Earth on 13 September 2015 show a near-sunset on Pluto with details of the surface and a haze in the atmosphere. In early 2007 the craft made use of a gravity assist from Jupiter. Bottomless plutons like these are called stocks if they are smaller than 100 square kilometers in extent, and batholiths if they're larger. Additionally, morale among the team and personnel working on interplanetary missions was low following the loss of the Mars Observer spacecraft during its attempted Areocentric orbit insertion in August 1993. You can thank the Pluto Underground", http://arago.si.edu/index.asp?con=2&cmd=1&id=192129&img=1&pg=1, "Postage for Pluto: A 29-cent stamp pissed off scientists so much they tacked it to, "Pluto Mission a Go! He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. Muchos investigadores e integrantes de la sociedad civil no estuvieron de acuerdo con este nombramiento. [23] On 15 April 2015, Pluto was imaged showing a possible polar cap. Everything You Need to Know About Igneous Rocks, Learn About Rock Cycle in the Earth's Crust, Magma Versus Lava: How It Melts, Rises, and Evolves, B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire. The mission heralded the same ideology as the Pluto 350 concept: small in size and cost-effective in scope, so that the spacecraft would be able to get to Pluto faster and be affordable to develop and launch. Hunt made fun of these in USGS Professional Paper 228 by proposing the name "cactolith" for a cactus-shaped pluton: "A cactolith is a quasihorizontal chonolith composed of anastomosing ductoliths whose distal ends curl like a harpolith, thin like a sphenolith, or bulge discordantly like an akmolith or ethmolith." After a Neptune encounter, the alignment of Pluto made it impossible for Voyager 2 to continue there, leaving it on a trajectory out of the Solar System. Pluto 350 aimed to send a spacecraft, weighing 350 kilograms, to Pluto. The two probes of the Voyager program, launched in 1977 to explore Jupiter and Saturn, had also the ability for an extended mission to other targets. Stern envisaged the probe being launched in 2030, marking the 100th anniversary of Pluto's discovery, and spending 7-8 years traveling to the Pluto system. At the time, it was thought that the atmosphere of Pluto would freeze and fall to the surface during winter, and so a lightweight spacecraft was desirable, as it would be able to reach Pluto before such an event would occur. [25][26], Pluto's small moons, discovered shortly before and after the probe's launch, were considered to be potentially hazardous, as debris from collisions between them and other Kuiper belt objects could have produced a tenuous dusty ring. Both spacecraft were to weigh only around 35-50 kilograms each (including 7 kg worth of scientific instruments), and the project would cost less than US$500 million to develop, excluding launch costs. Pluto was rejected in favor of Titan, Uranus and Neptune. [8][9], A Pluto orbiter/lander/sample return mission was proposed in 2003. "I told him he was welcome to it", Tombaugh later remembered, "though he's got to go one long, cold trip". New Horizons used a remote sensing package that includes imaging instruments and a radio science investigation tool, as well as spectroscopic and other experiments, to characterize the global geology and morphology of Pluto and its moon Charon, map their surface composition and analyze Pluto's neutral atmosphere and its escape rate. Because no mission to Pluto was planned by any space agency at the time, it would be left unexplored by interplanetary spacecraft for years to come. [32] However, such a lander would only observe the Charon-facing hemisphere of Pluto, as Pluto and Charon are tidally locked. The Fusion-Enabled Pluto Orbiter and Lander was a 2017 phase I report funded by the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) program. [11] The series featured a stamp for all planets, displaying an image of the planet and highlighting an associated spacecraft which was sent to it. Plutón [a] foi o deus do inframundo na mitoloxía romana.O seu equivalente na mitoloxía grega era Hades, aínda que Plutón era máis benigno.En canto á etimoloxía do nome confúndeselle coa de Pluto, o deus grego das riquezas.. Mito. In 1953, Charles B. Who said geologists couldn't be funny? The stamp for Pluto, however, depicted a featureless sphere, presented with the phrase "not yet explored" in place of the name of a spacecraft. [3][33] The report, written by principal investigator Stephanie Thomas of Princeton Satellite Systems, Inc., describes a Direct Fusion Drive (DFD) mission to Pluto. A pluton (pronounced "PLOO-tonn") is a deep-seated intrusion of igneous rock, a body that made its way into pre-existing rocks in a melted form several kilometers underground in the Earth's crust and then solidified.At that depth, the magma cooled and crystallized very slowly, allowing the mineral grains to grow large and tightly interlocked — typical of plutonic rocks. A pluton (pronounced "PLOO-tonn") is a deep-seated intrusion of igneous rock, a body that made its way into pre-existing rocks in a melted form (magma) several kilometers underground in the Earth's crust and then solidified. After Voyager 2 successfully returned data from Neptune in 1989, planetary scientists looked to Pluto as the destination for a subsequent mission. [17] The proposal was forwarded to Administrator Goldin, but he vetoed the proposal, recommending instead that the JPL look into the feasibility of Pluto Fast Flyby being launched aboard a smaller rocket, such as the Delta II. [22] New Horizons was more than 203,000,000 km (126,000,000 mi) away from Pluto when it began taking the photos, which showed Pluto and its largest moon, Charon. Alan Stern would later cite that event as a significant factor towards the low enthusiasm for the Pluto Fast Flyby project. Incluso algunos siguen tratando de debatir este cambio, pero hasta el día de hoy Plutón sigue siendo un planeta enano. Planetas que no tienen una superficie bien definida, ya que están compuestos mayoritariamente por fluidos. Magma is less dense than rock and tends to rise as buoyant bodies. De acuerdo con un importante resultado de la teoría de la relatividad, un observador en el sistema Tierra-Plutón vería contraerse la nave en la dirección del movimiento. Ne indeamna sa fim distructivi, dar si de a aduce o reforma pozitiva si schimbari definitive. [21] The images, taken from a distance of approximately 4.2 billion kilometers, confirmed the spacecraft's ability to track distant targets, critical for maneuvering toward Pluto and other Kuiper belt objects. A competition was held, in which NASA would select a mission concept to fund as part of the first mission of the New Frontiers program. "Pluto lander concept unveiled by Global Aerospace Corporation - SpaceFlight Insider", List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Exploration_of_Pluto&oldid=983212633, Discovery and exploration of the Solar System, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 October 2020, at 22:31.